Syllabus for exams in 2011
Syllabus for exams in 2012

1. The particulate nature of matter

  • Describe the states of matter and explain their interconversion in terms of the kinetic particle theory
  • Describe and explain diffusion
  • Describe evidence for the movement of particles in gases and liquids (a treatment of Brownian motion is not required)
  • Describe dependence of rate of diffusion on molecular mass (treated qualitatively)

2. Experimental techniques

2.1 Measurement
  • Name appropriate apparatus for the measurement of time, temperature, mass and volume, including burettes, pipettes and measuring cylinders

2.2 (a) Criteria of purity
  • Describe paper chromatography
  • Interpret simple chromatograms
  • Identify substances and assess their purity from melting point and boiling point information
  • Understand the importance of purity in substances in everyday life, e.g. foodstuffs and drugs
  • Interpret simple chromatograms, including the use of Rf values
  • Outline how chromatography techniques can be applied to colourless substances by exposing chromatograms to substances called locating agents (knowledge of specific locating agents is not required)
2.2 (b) Methods of purification
  • Describe methods of purification by the use of a suitable solvent, filtration, crystallisation, distillation (including use of fractionating column). (Refer to the fractional distillation of crude oil in section 14.2 and products of fermentation in section 14.6.)
  • Suggest suitable purification techniques, given information about the substances involved

3. Atoms, elements and compounds

3.1 Atomic structure and the Periodic Table
  • State the relative charges and approximate relative masses of protons, neutrons and electrons
  • Define proton number and nucleon number
  • Use proton number and the simple structure of atoms to explain the basis of the Periodic Table (see section 9), with special reference to the elements of proton number 1 to 20
  • Define isotopes
  • State the two types of isotopes as being radioactive and non-radioactive
  • State one medical and one industrial use of radioactive isotopes
  • Describe the build-up of electrons in ‘shells’ and understand the significance of the noble gas electronic structures and of valency electrons (the ideas of the distribution of electrons in s and p orbitals and in d block elements are not required.)(Note: a copy of the Periodic Table, as shown in the Appendix, will be available in Papers 1, 2 and 3)

3.2 Bonding: the structure of matter
  • Describe the differences between elements, mixtures and compounds, and between metals and non-metals
  • Describe an alloy, such as brass, as a mixture of a metal with other elements
3.2 (a) Ions and ionic bonds
  • Describe the formation of ions by electron loss or gain
  • Describe the formation of ionic bonds between elements from Groups I and VII
  • Describe the formation of ionic bonds between metallic and non-metallic elements
  • Describe the lattice structure of ionic compounds as a regular arrangement of alternating positive and negative ions
3.2 (b) Molecules and covalent bonds
  • Describe the formation of single covalent bonds in H2, Cl2 , H2O, CH4 and HCl as the sharing of pairs of electrons leading to the noble gas configuration
  • Describe the differences in volatility, solubility and electrical conductivity between ionic and covalent compounds
  • Describe the electron arrangement in more complex covalent molecules such as N2, C2H4, CH3OH and CO2
3.2 (c) Macromolecules
  • Describe the giant covalent structures of graphite and diamond
  • Relate their structures to the use of graphite as a lubricant and of diamond in cutting
  • Describe the macromolecular structure of silicon(IV) oxide (silicon dioxide)
  • Describe the similarity in properties between diamond and silicon(IV) oxide, related to their structures
3.2 (d) Metallic bonding

  • Describe metallic bonding as a lattice of positive ions in a ‘sea of electrons’ and use this to describe the electrical conductivity and malleability of metals